"I would recommend this course to anyone who is doing pharmacy in a developing country; it opens your eyes and you see pharmacy and supply chain from a different angle” (Cynthia Kamtengeni, Zimbabwe, UNICEF)
What is the course about?
According to the constitution of the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) access to essential medicines is part of the right to health. Increasing the availability of essential medicines at the service delivery point is crucial to preventing millions of deaths. The success of a health programme is dependent on the ability to reliably and consistently supply essential products, including medicines, to support service delivery. However, despite increased donor funding and an array of new products, there are a number of factors that continue to significantly restrict access to essential medicines and other health products.
While many factors influence medicine availability, the capacity of a country’s supply chain to select, forecast, procure, and deliver essential health supplies can be a major constraint. As we move into the post-2015 agenda of Sustainable Development Goals it is clear that sustainable health supply chain management is critical.
Supply chain excellence requires that all of the functions of a supply chain work together efficiently. For example, decisions about product selection must inform decisions about distribution modes, the frequency of delivery, and storage specification. Similarly, rational use of pharmaceuticals is critical for accurate quantification - which, in turn, effects procurement planning. Any supply chain strategy must consider these interactions and the associated trade-offs between alternative approaches.
The course structure is based on the 6 + 1 rights of a health supply chain: the right goods, the right quantity, the right cost, the right condition, the right place, the right time, and the right interventions.
PSA's training focuses on the higher–order skills required by supply chain managers to understand the end-to-end requirements for a sustainable health supply chain, rather than a narrow focus on individual activities. It is, therefore, important for everyone involved in supply chain management to have a demonstrable competence in each function.
Who should attend this course?
The training is targeted at people who are responsible for planning, procuring, distributing or monitoring health programme supplies. It will be especially of use to those with a health professional background who are entering the health logistics and supply chain environment. Specific positions may include:
- Procurement officers
- Pharmacy managers
- Warehouse or distribution managers
- Health programme managers
- Information systems managers
- Staff of Central Medical Stores
- Technical Assistance providers
- Donors supporting commodity programmes
The objective of this course is to increase participants' understanding of procurement and logistics management of health supply chains and associated planning requirements, enabling them to make improvements in their own geographical and organisational contexts.
Course Learning Outcomes
By the conclusion of this course participants will be able to:
- understand the interrelated components of an end-to-end health supply chain from the perspective of a rights-based approach;
- describe the critical cross-cutting elements that need to be in place to ensure a sustainable and well-functioning health supply chain;
- understand the issues experienced by supply chain personnel from other countries and organisations, and use these to reflect on their own circumstances; and,
- apply the experiences and resources identified in this course to make improvements in their own health supply chain based on their area of influence.
Day 1: Module 1 - Introduction
- Define health supply chain management, the key supply chain functions and stakeholders, in the context of the 6 + 1 rights of supply chain
- Describe the difference between ‘access' to and ‘availability' of essential medicines, and the core elements for access
- Describe the negative consequences of broken health supply chains
- Explore the key attributes of well-functioning health supply chains
Day 2: Module 2 - Right Interventions, Right Products, Right Quantity
- Right Interventions
- Explain the ‘umbrella’ of ‘right interventions’, which sets the policy and procedural framework for effective health supply chains
- Define rational use of medicines and explain how inappropriate use of health commodities affects health supply chains
- Right Products
- Explain the role of Essential Medicines Lists in product selection, and the benefits of National Essential Medicine Lists (NEMLs) to public health supply chain management
- List the resources available to assist in Medical Devices Needs Assessment before product selection
- Determine what makes an effective donation policy and consider barriers to effective implementation
- Right Quantity
- Understand what is meant by quantification, and the associated key activities
- Apply a variety of quantification methods to determine product quantity requirements
- Describe how quantification links to subsequent health supply chain management activities
- Apply VEN analysis to make the best use of limited financial resources
- Explain how emergency situations may change procurement approaches
Day 3: Module 3 - Right Quality, Right Cost
- Right Quality
- Describe the differences between quality assurance and quality control in a health supply chain context
- List the quality assurance activities used in the procurement cycle, including Good Manufacturing Process (GMP) and pre-qualification
- Explain the differences between counterfeit and sub-standard medicines and what steps can be taken to avoid the entry of these products into the marketplace
- Describe the use of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) to monitor health supply chain performance
- Right Cost
- List the guiding principles governing public procurement
- Explore the different procurement activities from requirement definition to supplier performance management
- Understand the importance of procurement planning as a key enabler of an integrated health supply chain
Day 4: Module 4 - Right Place, Right Time
- List the components that make up a logistics and inventory management system
- Explore the different logistics and inventory management activities
- Describe the key elements of cold chain management
- Identify the key principles to follow to ensure appropriate storage of health commodities
- Explore the common logistics and inventory management challenges in downstream health supply chains
- Identify when reverse logistics may be required and how this should be operationalised
Day 5: Module 5 - Cross-cutting themes
- Describe the importance of supply chain system design and the concepts of integration (horizontal and internal), segmentation and vertical supply chains
- Explore risk management in health supply chain activities
- Explain the difference between performance monitoring and evaluation activities and identify where these are undertaken throughout the health supply chain cycle
- Identify key human resources activities that need to be present to ensure a productive and sustainable supply chain workforce
- Describe how innovation approaches should be considered to ensure appropriate integration into the supply chain