Decoupling resource use and environmental impact from economic development is one of the main challenges that modern society faces towards sustainable development. Industrial symbiosis can play a significant role in achieving this target. This term is nowadays widely used to describe the development of mutually beneficial relationships between two or more industrial units. In the most common case, one industry is using as an input a waste stream produced by another one. The main benefit of developing symbiotic schemes is the reduction of resource use and the increase in energy and material efficiency. At the same time, production cost is lowered, leading to increased economic benefits for all involved actors, and environmental protection is promoted, through the reduction of the overall waste volume. What are the main concepts and principles related to industrial symbiosis? What is the level of progress in building symbiotic schemes on a National and European Level? What is the regional potential for further developing such schemes? Are the existing barriers only of technical nature or social factors, such as trust and cooperation, among partners is of equal significance?